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Dstl acquires first Satellite Ground Control Station for MOD Space Research and Development 22 July 2019
In the UK the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) reported on 18 July that it had acquired its first satellite ground control station to support future space research activities for the Ministry of Defence (MOD).
Based at Portsdown West, Hampshire, the ground station will use its 6.3m diameter antenna to direct satellites in both low-Earth and geosynchronous orbits, and will form a core part of the Dstl Space Science & Technology (S&T) programme.
IMO Maritime Safety Committee 101 outcomes 21 July 2019
The 101st session of the IMO Maritime Safety Committee (MSC 101) was held at IMO HQ from 5-14 June.
Through the kind offices of the IMO media service we are able to bring you a briefing on a representative selection of the transactions that took place at the gathering. A number of these will be of interest to Members of IAIN.
2020 Israel Navigation Workshop and Exhibition 16 July 2019
INWE20, the Israel Navigation Workshop and Exhibition, is a biennial event organized and sponsored by the Israel Association for Automatic Control (IAAC). Following the huge success of previous events, the 2020 edition has been scheduled for 27 January 2020 at the Daniel Hotel in Herzliya.
INWE20 will be a one-day event dedicated to technical talks in navigation systems ranging from fundamental research, to applications, to field test results.
Topics of interest include: navigation, positioning and timekeeping in all their variations; sensors, systems, optimal integration of multiple sensors, and novel or emerging technologies in the field of navigation.
In parallel with the talks the organisers will host a technical exhibit in which navigation equipment manufacturers and system suppliers will have the opportunity to show their current products and most recent technical innovations.
The Earth from Space - Japan's Mount Fuji 13 July 2019
At the end of week commencing 7 July the European Space Agency (ESA) published the photograph shown here taken on a Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission over Mount Fuji, Japan's highest mountain standing at 3776 metres. In this Spring image, the mountain can be seen coated in pure white snow.
This snow-capped mountain is often shrouded in cloud and fog, but the image was captured on a clear day, by the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite flying at a height of 800 km.
Mount Fuji is a symbol of Japan, and a popular tourist destination. Around 300,000 people climb the mountain every year - and in the image shown here several hiking trails can be seen leading to the base of the mountain.
US ties record for number of high tide flooding days in 2018 12 July 2019
The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported on 10 July that coastal communities across the US continued to see increased high tide flooding last year, forcing residents and visitors to deal with flooded shorelines, streets and basements. This is a trend that is expected to continue this year. Elevated water levels affected coastal economies, tourism and crucial infrastructure like septic systems and storm-water systems, according to the new NOAA document.
High tide flooding, often referred to as 'nuisance' or 'sunny day' flooding, is increasingly common due to years of relative sea level increases. It no longer takes a strong storm or a hurricane to cause flooding in many coastal areas.
The Journal of the US Institute of Navigation announces new journal impact factor growth 06 July 2019
It was announced from ION's HQ in Manassas, Virginia, on 2 July that the Institute of Navigation (ION) is once again pleased to announce the continued growth of NAVIGATION, The Journal of The Institute of Navigation, reflected in the latest Journal Impact Factor (JIF) report.
It is understood that the JIF of an academic journal is a measurement tool used to calculate the yearly average number of citations to recent articles published in a journal and is an indication of the relative importance of the journal within its field.
NAVIGATION's Journal Impact Factor has now increased to 1.629, representing a 290% four-year increase.
Investigation finds unintended risks with ECDIS navigation 02 July 2019
On 27 June the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) issued the report of its investigation of the grounding of the Australian Border Force Cutter (ABFC) Roebuck Bay on Henry Reef, Queensland, on 30 September 2017. This document has revealed underlying safety issues with the effectiveness of ECDIS type-specific training, ECDIS software updates and the use of a single point feature to represent relatively large physical features on electronic navigational charts.
Roebuck Bay's electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) identified the reef as a danger to the planned route, however, the crew did not identify the danger either visually or by using ECDIS. The vessel continued on the amended route and grounded on Henry Reef just after midnight. There were no reported injuries or oil pollution, but the vessel sustained substantial damage.
Trinity House celebrates World Marine Aids to Navigation Day 2019 01 July 2019
On 1 July 2019 Trinity House joined lighthouse and marine aids to navigation authorities around the world to mark the first ever World Marine Aids to Navigation Day, established to celebrate and promote the role of marine aids to navigation (AtoNs) and highlight the importance of safety at sea.
As a focal point for highlighting the importance of aids to navigation as a service for all mariners, Trinity House has chosen to emphasise its statutory duty as an auditor and inspector of local aids to navigation, rather than its more well-known duty as a provider of general aids to navigation such as lighthouses, lightvessels and buoys.
Local aids to navigation are owned and operated by Local Lighthouse Authorities rather than Trinity House, but the powers and duties granted to Trinity House require it to audit and inspect over 11,000 local AtoNs.
Trinity House to decommission Royal Sovereign Lighthouse 29 June 2019
Trinity House London has begun preparatory work on a project to decommission Royal Sovereign Lighthouse in the English Channel. It is the intention that the now-deteriorating lighthouse will be completely removed clear to the seabed. This has necessitated that Beachy Head Lighthouse be upgraded to ensure the safety of the mariners in those waters. Trinity House aims to commence work in 2020.
Royal Sovereign Lighthouse was built in 1971 with a design life of 50 years. Having monitored the fabric of the lighthouse over the last decade and observing the expected signs of deterioration, Trinity House concluded that the ongoing safety of the mariner requires that the structure be fully decommissioned.
Royal Sovereign Lighthouse has provided nearly 50 years of reliable service as an aid to navigation, one of over 600 that Trinity House operates for the benefit and safety of the mariner.
ENC 2020 - Call for papers 26 June 2019
The DGON, our member in the Federal Republic, the German Institute of Navigation, invites delegates to the beautiful city of Dresden.
On behalf of the Scientific Committee of the European Satellite Navigation Conference ENC 2020 the German Institute of Navigation (DGON) extends a welcome to ENC 2020 in Dresden ENC 2020 will take place from 11-14 May 2020, at the MARITIM Hotel & Internationales Congress Center Dresden, Germany.
Call for papers
DGON invites potential delegates to submit their outstanding and valuable original research papers and to participate in the technical exhibition during the conference. The period for Draft Paper Submission is now open with closure on 1 November 2019.
IALA announces World Marine Aids to Navigation Day 2019 23 June 2019
Events are being organized through the world and reports indicate that events will be held in Vanuatu, Japan, Argentina, Australia, Spain and Denmark.
The theme: Successful Voyages, Sustainable Planet serves to encompass the suggestions proposed by Members of IALA and accommodates all aspects of each of IALA's Technical Committee. The theme reinforces the mission of IALA in the maritime arena for worldwide harmonisation of aids to navigation standards, the facilitation of the safety and efficiency of navigation and protection of the environment.
Desert greenery 18 June 2019
On 17 June ESA marked the 25th anniversary of World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought. Under its theme: Let's grow the future together, the initiative celebrates the 25 years of progress made in sustainable land management.
One ambitious project - the Great Green Wall - aims to improve life in Africa's desert regions by planting a belt of trees across the entire width of the continent. Once completed, the wall will be the largest living structure on the planet stretching across 20 countries - from Senegal in the west to Djibouti in the east. By 2030, the initiative aims to have restored 100 million hectares of degraded land, sequestered 250 million tonnes of carbon and created 10 million green jobs.
Captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission, the image (processed by the European Space Agency-ESA) is of the edge of the dry desert in west Africa contrasted with vegetated land. Signs of land degradation can be seen as brighter "islands" around villages and to a lesser extent along roads and rivers showing bare soil and degraded vegetation.
ESA informs us the image they kindly have distributed shows parts of three African countries: Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau.
Marines land in Baltic exercise BALTOPS 2019 17 June 2019
Maritime forces from 18 nations are currently taking part in the 47th annual multinational Exercise Baltic Operations (BALTOPS) in the Baltic Sea, running to 21 June. BALTOPS is the premier annual maritime-focused exercise in the Baltic region and one of the largest exercises in northern Europe, enhancing flexibility and interoperability among allied and partner nations.
Vice-Admiral Andrew Lewis, commander of the US 2nd Fleet, is leading the exercise on behalf of US Naval Forces Europe. In an interview he commented: 'No one nation can face today's challenges alone, we are much stronger together. Our partner and NATO alliances must continue to strengthen our deterrence and defence efforts and adapt through improving readiness and responsiveness.'
RAF Typhoons scramble to intercept Russian fighters - The Baltic Air Policing Mission 17 June 2019
vRoyal Air Force (RAF) Typhoon fighter jets based at Ämari Air Base in Estonia were scrambled twice over the weekend (14-15 June) to intercept Russian fighter aircraft. Working in partnership with the Estonian authorities, this was a routine NATO airspace policing mission for the Typhoon detachment providing continued reassurance in the region.
This weekend's activity indicates that the RAF have made eight intercepts of Russian aircraft since taking over the Baltic Air Policing mission on 3 May 2019.
New Chief Executive and Accounting Officer UKHO 10 June 2019
At the end of May the UK Hydrographic Office (UKHO) reported that Rear- Admiral Tim Lowe had been appointed to the office of Chief Executive and Accounting Officer.
Admiral Lowe joined the UKHO as National Hydrographer and Deputy Chief Executive in 2015. In January 2019, he was made Acting Chief Executive, leading the UKHO's transformation to become a modern marine geospatial information agency and hydrographic office. This included overseeing the opening of the UKHO's award-winning office and championing key projects that have helped government, academia and the wider marine community make the best use of our oceans in safer, more secure and more sustainable ways.
Crew alertness avoids potential taxiing collision 06 June 2019
The Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) has reminded flight crews to remain alert and vigilant during taxiing, following an incident where a high workload situation probably led to an air traffic controller forgetting conflicting instructions had been issued.
During the 30 April 2018 incident, an Airbus A321 airliner was taxiing to the gate after landing at Melbourne Airport when the captain had to brake heavily to avoid a possible collision with a taxiing Boeing 737-800. Both aircraft had been given clearance by the surface movement controller in the control tower to proceed through the same taxiway intersection.
The Navigation Flashlight 05 June 2019
From our Austrian member institute, the Österreichischer Verein für Navigation, we have received word of the latest issue of their regular publication, The Navigation Flashlight. It is published three times a year, currently in its nineteenth year of publication and it is in German.
Inmarsat and Hyundai Global Service agreement 05 June 2019
It was reported on 5 June that Inmarsat has signed a business cooperation agreement that allows Hyundai Global Service (HGS) to offer shipowners and managers a digital total care route to maritime digitalisation. HGS was established in 2016 by parent group Hyundai Heavy Industries as a digital transformation service provider to optimise ship operation and performance.
The unique agreement paves the way for a cooperation that will include the use of Fleet Xpress Dedicated Bandwidth Services by HGS to support its digital services for shipowners plus recognition of HGS as a Certified Application Partner (CAP) within Inmarsat's digital ecosystem.
DNV GL new Digital Solutions CEO 03 June 2019
It was announced from Høvik, Norway, on 3 June that Kenneth Vareide has been appointed the CEO of DNV GL's Digital Solutions business, which is a provider of devices for managing risk and improving asset performance.
Oil and gas executives surveyed in DNV GL's Industry Outlook highlighted digitalization as the leading R&D priority, although a lack of relevant skills was identified as the biggest barrier. Their peers in the energy value chain told a similar story in digitalization and the future of energy, with 91% of companies saying that further digital skills training was needed.
Added Vareide: 'Our long commitment to creating value from digital technology means that we are able to combine deep domain and digital knowledge. As a company, we are in a constant dialogue with our customers and we are committed to providing solutions that bridge their digital skills gap.'
RAF in Exercise Arctic Challenge 03 June 2019
The last week of May and the first week of June saw RAF aircraft and personnel training on an exercise in Sweden alongside eight other nations to work together in building collective security.
Arctic Challenge Exercise (ACE) is one of Europe's largest air force exercises with 140 aircraft and 4000 troops from the UK, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and US, supported by NATO assets, all of which came together from 22 May to test their effectiveness in a realistic threat environment. The exercise is expected to be concluded on 4 June.
By taking part in the exercise, the nine participating air forces share knowledge and learn from each other to strengthen their interoperability. Personnel are tested in various disciplines including: (a) Threat evasion tactics such as low- level flying; (b) Aerial resupply (load drops) to friendly forces; (c) Search and rescue, and (d) Air-to-air refuelling.
Inmarsat partners with Airbus 31 May 2019
It was reported on 30 May that this partnership is expected to transform Global Xpress (GX) network capacity, capabilities and operational agility to meet greater market demand for some years ahead in global maritime mobile broadband connectivity.
There is expected to be unprecedented enhancement in overall Fleet Xpress network capacity and capabilities, to support the next generation of mobile broadband services with extraordinary ability to deliver new capabilities for customers.
MED '19 reminder 26 May 2019
Daniel Zelazo, Publicity Chair of MED 2019, draws our attention to the 27th Mediterranean Conference on Control & Automation to be held from 1-4 July in Akko, Israel.
UFA Develops New State-of-the-Art Aerodrome Simulator for the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore 24 May 2019
Burlington, MA., May 20, 2019 - UFA, Inc. (UFA), a leading provider of Air Traffic Simulation and Voice Technologies, announces the successful on-time completion of a new Aerodrome Simulator for the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). The new Aerodrome Simulator is specially customized for CAAS' training needs and was officially inaugurated at the World Civil Aviation Chief Executives Forum (WCACEF) in April 2019.
IEC Telecom unveils new leisure boat satcoms system 22 May 2019
It was reported in mid-May that global satellite communications specialist IEC Telecom was preparing to unveil a pioneering communications solution to the yachting community during this year's annual Skagen race to be held from 29 to 31 May.
Known as InTouch this is an all-in-one communications system which is understood to enable small vessels and leisure craft to stay connected wherever they are, in port or at sea. This innovative system connects via one WiFi link and seamlessly switches between port WiFi to LTE/GSM and satellite systems, ensuring master and crew maintain communication at all times as the vessel sails, it is understood.
EU-Polarnet White Papers Released 22 May 2019
It was reported in recent weeks that five white papers have been published by EU-PolarNet, within which the World Ocean Council (WOC) is a Working Partner. This issue is a conclusion to the 2018 Workshop: Working Towards an Integrated European Polar Research Programme (illustrated).
The EU-PolarNet White Paper Workshop convened 50 international experts in La Cristalera, Spain, in September last year (2018), with the aim of drafting a set of policy documents that highlight issues in both the Arctic and Antarctic that urgently need to be addressed - and to which European polar research could make significant contributions.
US Navy in Arabian Sea operation 20 May 2019
On 19 May the US Navy News Service reported that the Abraham Lincoln
Carrier Strike Group (ABECSG) and the Kearsarge Amphibious Ready Group (KSGARG), with the embarked 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU),
conducted joint operations on 17 / 18 May in the Arabian Sea, part of the US 5th Fleet's area of responsibility.
According to Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Catie Coyle of the Abraham Lincoln Carrier Strike Group Public Affairs, after the ABECSG deployed to the region in response to credible threat indicators, these operations highlight the ability of the US Navy to quickly mobilize assets and aggregate different platforms with a variety of operational capabilities.
East Med Maritime Conference 2019 15 May 2019
The East Med Maritime Conference EMMC 2019 will be held under the patronage of the President of the Council of Ministers, HE Saad Hariri, as well as the Ministry of Public Works & Transport, Directorate General of Land & Maritime Transport in Lebanon.
EMMC 2019 will take place on 19 and 20 June 2019, at Hilton Beirut Habtour Grand, Beirut-Lebanon.
Joining forces on earth science to benefit society 14 May 2019
To ensure a more efficient approach on Earth-system science and to bring direct benefits to society it was reported on 13 May that the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission are to cooperate closely.
Having regard to global change in the coming decades Earth's growing population will place greater pressure on vital resources such as water and food. Along with the risk of further pollution, damage to ecosystems, declining biodiversity, global issues such as sea-level rise and the likelihood of more extreme weather events are some of the serious concerns to be addressed.
Satellites will witness change and provide critical information to enable an understanding of what is happening and, ultimately, to deliver the evidence needed to make informed decisions.
The 11th Arctic Council meeting 10 May 2019
At the 11th Arctic Council Ministerial meeting in Rovaniemi, Finland, Ministers of the eight Arctic States, leaders from the six indigenous Permanent Participant organizations and the Chairs of the six Working Groups of the Arctic Council met to mark the passing of the Chairmanship from Finland to Iceland.
In the Rovaniemi Joint Ministerial Statement, the Arctic States reaffirmed the Council's commitment to maintain the Arctic as a region of peace, stability and constructive cooperation. Additionally, Finland's Foreign Minister Timo Soini released a Chair's statement, summarizing the Council's achievements and giving guidance for the next two years. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) was accredited as a new Observer.
ESA and power grids 07 May 2019
An ESA-backed project is harnessing satellite navigation to insert an intelligent sense of place and time to power grids, to provide early warning of potentially dangerous electricity network failures.
Four years ago an apparent fire from nowhere forced the evacuation of 5,000 people from central London. Thick black smoke and choking fumes emerged from manhole covers as power was cut off to the Holborn neighbourhood. The local London Underground station was shuttered, along with West End theatres and law courts.
This project is supported through ESA's Navigation Innovation and Support Programme (NAVISP), applying ESA's hard-won expertise from Galileo and Europe's EGNOS satellite augmentation system to new satellite navigation and - more widely - positioning, navigation and timing challenges.
27th Mediterranean Conference on Control & Automation 07 May 2019
Registration is now open. Advanced discounted registration is open until 27 May, 2019.
Daniel Zelazo, Publicity Chair for MED 2019 writes: 'The 27th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED 2019) will be held from 1-4 July 2019 in Akko, Israel.'
'MED 2019 will include tutorials and workshops, a technical programme of presentations, keynote lectures and social events. It offers a great opportunity for academics, researchers and industrial players working in control and automation to network together, present research progress and address new challenges. The conference will include a wide range of topics on systems, automation, robotics and control including theory, related hardware, software and communication technologies, as well as applications.'
Greater flexibility and efficiency in European airspace 06 May 2019
It was reported on 2 May from Maastricht, The Netherlands, that since 25 April 2019, cross-border free route airspace (FRA) managed by EUROCONTROL's Maastricht Upper Area Control Centre (MUAC), Naviair, LFV and DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung has allowed cross-border free route operations.
Airspace users planning to fly in the upper airspace between Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Germany, Denmark and Sweden can now do so irrespective of airspace boundaries, it is understood. According to EUROCONTROL's statement this allows for optimised routeings, fuel savings and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
ICAO Secretary General calls for investments in air transport to enhance connectivity between Belt and Road countries 01 May 2019
ICAO Secretary General Dr Fang Liu attended the 2nd Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing in April, providing remarks to the main Infrastructure Connectivity session highlighting the critical role of air transport in forging new travel and trade routes between Belt and Road countries and other states leading to new venues for prosperity. This was reported from IHQ in Montreal on 30 April.
Stressing how liberalized air transport and increased air traffic routes are currently helping many developing States move closer to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted under the UN's Agenda 2030, Dr Liu highlighted to the large number of Ministers of Transport and Infrastructure and heads of international organizations present that: 'a very direct relationship exists between States' investments in aviation development and their eventual realization of increased economic growth.'
ION GNSS + 2019 24 April 2019
It was reported from ION HQ in Manassas, Virginia, USA on 23 April that the ION GNSS+ 2019 advance conference programme is now available online.
Registration may be achieved here.
This is the world's largest technical meeting and showcase of GNSS technology, products and services. ION GNSS+ 2019 will take place from 16 to 20 September at the Hyatt Regency Miami in Miami, Florida and features two different technical tracks, Commercial and Policy Sessions and Research Sessions.
New technologies and a network approach 11 April 2019
It was reported from Langen, Germany, on 10 April 2019 that CANSO (the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation) has laid out the steps that all stakeholders in air traffic management need to take towards achieving seamless airspace.
In an address at a Global ATM Operations Conference hope was expressed that air navigation services providers (ANSPs) and States should continue to take full advantage of new technologies and also start to move towards a more network, cross-border mindset. Furthermore governments must give ANSPs the freedom to act as normal businesses and regulators need to adopt a performance-based approach to regulation.
Beyond the Harbour Lights 11 April 2019
vChris Mills, the author, has supplemented a selection of contemporary newspaper articles, mainly from the 1920s and 1930s, with background information from other sources such as the reports of Marine Courts of Inquiry, extracts from ships' logs, and references to crew agreements, law reports and published narratives by ship masters. A few imaginative details have been added, but the stories are all firmly based on true events as reported and recorded at the time. Each of this book's chapters describes an incident from the period which was something of a golden age for British shipping. These incidents affected vessels of the Red Ensign going about their business. Mills portrays what conditions were like on board British merchant vessels of the time and has made his subject a most readable one.
ION special issue of NAVIGATION featuring BeiDou 05 April 2019
It was announced ION's HQ in Manassas, Virginia, on 4 April that it had published a special issue of its journal NAVIGATION, featuring China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) with special editors John W Betz, Mingquan Lu, Y Jade Morton and Yuanxi Yang.
This special issue provides a collection of papers presenting research achievements in the BDS over the last two years. It covers essential fields necessary to ensure the successful operation of BDS such as constellation design, operational and control system design and construction, frequency and signal design, updated coordinate reference system and time system, satellite orbit determination, ionospheric model, and software receiver. Publication of the issue also provides an opportunity to promote users' understanding and applications of the BDS.
Royal Air Force monitors Russian bombers 05 April 2019
The image shown here was taken on 3 April from a Royal Air Force Typhoon aircraft, and is of two Russian Blackjack Tupolev Tu-160 long range bombers in the distance leaving long vapour trails.
RAF quick reaction alert Typhoon aircraft from RAF Lossiemouth in Scotland scrambled to monitor the two Blackjack bombers while they were in the UK area of interest. This is the third time RAF jets have been scrambled to monitor Russian aircraft in the last ten days.
National Maritime Museum presents its major exhibition: The Moon 04 April 2019
To celebrate 50 years since NASA's Apollo 11 mission landed the first humans on the Moon, the National Maritime Museum (NMM) is to stage The Moon, the UK's biggest exhibition dedicated to Earth's nearest celestial neighbour - opening on 19 July 2019.
Featuring over 180 objects from national and international museums and private collections, the exhibition presents a cultural and scientific story of our relationship with the Moon over time and across civilisations. Through artefacts, artworks and interactive moments, the exhibition will enable visitors to reconnect with the wonders of the Moon and discover how it has captivated and inspired us.
BSNL granted authorisation to provide Inmarsat's in-flight and maritime GX services in India 03 April 2019
On 3 April 2019 Inmarsat, a leader in global mobile satellite communications, announced that its Indian telecommunications partner, BSNL, had received an In-Flight and Maritime Connectivity (IFMC) licence from the Government of India's Department of Telecommunications.
Issuing of the licence marks a major step for Inmarsat's services in the Indian connectivity market. It is understood that BSNL is now approved to offer IFMC services, which will include Inmarsat's Global Xpress (Ka-band) and SwiftBroadband and FleetBroadband (L-band) services, to Indian airlines operating within and outside India, as well as foreign airlines transiting through Indian airspace, and shipping companies operating within Indian waters.
Inmarsat and BSNL are expected to commence services later this year once the ground infrastructure and associated approvals are in place.
New EU-wide targets for ATM CANSO and realistic implementation 03 April 2019
It was announced from Brussels, on 2 April 2019 that CANSO (Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation) has emphasised that flexibility and realism are needed at the local level in implementing proposed and challenging EU-wide air traffic management (ATM) targets. The new targets are for the third reference period (RP3) of the Single European Sky Performance Scheme. It is understood that they cover performance in the areas of safety, flight efficiency, en-route delays and cost.
In its statement CANSO indicates that it strongly supports the need for such performance-based targets as important to the development of ATM in Europe. However, the proposed new targets are understood to pose a significant challenge: to reduce unit costs while continuing to tackle the pressing capacity constraints affecting performance in Europe. It is therefore, according to CANSO, vital that the binding local targets that flow from these EU-wide targets are realistic, achievable and appropriate for present conditions.
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page last revised Jul 21, 2019